Airstrikes against the Idlib Province leveled a number of houses in the Zardana area, killing dozens of civilians. The exact death toll is contested, with some saying as many as 51 civilians were killed, while other tolls were lower.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has been the monitor offering most of the casualty estimates on the attack, and added it was “probably” Russian warplanes behind the attack. Russia denies that is the case, however.
Russia’s Defense Ministry says they did not carry out any airstrikes at all in Idlib Province. They pointed to a possible alternative, however, saying they’d seen reports of heavy artillery fire in the area amid rebel infighting.
With so many different nations conducting airstrikes in Syria, it is often difficult, or even impossible, to determine who was responsible for any particular strike. This has both made it hard to reliably discern reality, and worryingly allowed nations to deny involvement with at least some plausibility, even when they were ultimately proved to be behind it.